Canadian biodiversity strategy pdf


Because karst is highly productive, associated forests are sought after for timber harvesting. However, the geological characteristics that encourage productivity also encourage soil loss and site degradation once vegetation cover is disturbed. Indirect damage, such as sedimentation from fine-textured soils and blockages caused by debris, can also affect the functioning of karst ecosystems. Just over half of the . landscape that is potentially karst is forested and, of that, 55% has been logged. 786

Within the next decade, Canada will launch a new polar icebreaker. This will be the largest and most powerful icebreaker ever in the Canadian Coast Guard fleet.

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Soil is critical to future ecological response to climate change. Enduring landscape features such as parent material and topography will remain essentially the same as climate, biota and disturbance regimes change. Soils change over a longer time scale than individual plants and animals and retain characteristics and clues to past ecology and disturbance (., floods, charcoal from forest fires, excavation, landslides, volcanic deposits and pollen). Different soil types may also act to buffer or amplify climatic, anthropogenic and ecological changes.

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Identifying uniquely adapted taxa documents genetic diversity and divergence, and may contribute to the persistence of local populations. Hot spots of genetic distinctiveness 865 and divergent populations may be identified by observable physical characteristics in some cases, but some taxa are difficult to differentiate and require genetic markers for identification. 866

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Why are they important? Both organic and inorganic nutrients from rivers collect in estuaries to create biologically active areas where large populations of mammals, birds and marine organisms congregate, 757 with primary production rivalling tropical rainforests. 758 Estuaries are transition areas that provide connectivity for many aquatic migrating species, such as salmon, as they travel between the ocean and the upstream river. Estuaries fulfill ecological roles such as filtering water, decomposing organic matter and providing feeding habitat. 759,755 Within estuaries, habitats such as seagrass meadows and wetlands are recognized as 'nurseries' (., rearing areas), particularly for fish and invertebrates. 756

On the second priority, Canada will secure international recognition for the full extent of our extended continental shelf wherein we can exercise our sovereign rights over the resources of the seabed and subsoil. Most known Arctic natural resources lie within the exclusive economic zones of Arctic states 755 nautical miles extending from the coastal baselines. States have sovereign rights to explore and exploit living and non-living marine resources in their respective exclusive economic zones. Arctic coastal states also have existing rights to resources on their extended continental shelves beyond their exclusive economic zones.

Keywords: Biodiversity degraded wetlands habitat management Hackensack Meadowlands, New Jersey Phragmites urban wildlife wetland restoration

Except for the two endemic zones, Sub-boreal Spruce and Sub-boreal Pine-Spruce, all of the province's biogeoclimatic zones are shared with neighbouring jurisdictions (Table 6). For example, the Interior Douglas-fir zone is distributed across British Columbia, Alberta, Montana, Idaho, Washington and Oregon.

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Why is it important? Estuarine ecosystems, both vegetated and unvegetated, are critical transition zones that link terrestrial, freshwater and marine habitats and perform many essential ecological functions, including nutrient cycling. Sediment-associated organisms - including bacteria, fungi, single-celled animals and sedimentdwelling invertebrates (., nematodes, copepods, annelids, molluscs and peracarid crustaceans) and vascular plants - are integral to these functions. Sediment-associated plants also contribute to structural complexity in estuarine ecosystems, providing important habitat for a wide variety of species. 686


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